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Whales, dolphins and porpoises, collectively referred to as cetaceans, are difficult to observe in the wild. They spend most of their time fully submerged and without a boat, an oxygen tank, and diving certificate, you're bound to miss out on the majority of their activities. But on occasion, cetaceans do pop out of the sea for a moment or two and a whole vocabulary has emerged to described the things they do during these brief surface visits. The terms in this article describe the various gestures you might see if you're lucky enough to spot a whale or dolphin at the surface.