European common toads (Bufo bufo) range in size from about 3 to 8 inches in length. Females are generally larger than males. Their skin is warty and can be brown, brownish-red, or green. Eurpean common toads have few defenses. They secrete a toxin that makes them unpleasant to predators and sometimes stand up on their toes in a defensive posture. But they have no teath and aside from tasting bad and attempting to look menacing, these gentle creatures have no other defense.
European common toads breed in spring and the females lay their eggs in water coiled amongst aquatic vegetation. They are primarily nocturnal and the adults spend the non-breading months on dry land. This species of frog is not threatened, but like all amphibians though, the European common toad is vulnerable to water pollution, pesticides and herbicides, as well as habitat degreadation and loss,
Europe, Central Asia, Northwest Africa. Often found in woodlands, fields, and gardens.